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Journal of Neuroscience





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The ability to detect regularities in sound (i.e., recurring structure) is critical for effective perception, enabling, for example, change detection and prediction. Two seemingly unconnected lines of research concern the neural operations involved in processing regularities: one investigates how neural activity synchronizes with temporal regularities (e.g., frequency modulation; FM) in sounds, whereas the other focuses on increases in sustained activity during stimulation with repeating tone-frequency patterns. In three electroencephalography studies with male and female human participants, we investigated whether neural synchronization and sustained neural activity are dissociable, or whether they are functionally interdependent. Experiment I demonstrated that neural activity synchronizes with temporal regularity (FM) in sounds, and that sustained activity increases concomitantly. In Experiment II, phase coherence of FM in sounds was parametrically varied. Although neural synchronization was more sensitive to changes in FM coherence, such changes led to a systematic modulation of both neural synchronization and sustained activity, with magnitude increasing as coherence increased. In Experiment III, participants either performed a duration categorization task on the sounds, or a visual object tracking task to distract attention. Neural synchronization was observed regardless of task, whereas the sustained response was observed only when attention was on the auditory task, not under (visual) distraction. The results suggest that neural synchronization and sustained activity levels are functionally linked: both are sensitive to regularities in sounds. However, neural synchronization might reflect a more sensory-driven response to regularity, compared with sustained activity which may be influenced by attentional, contextual, or other experiential factors.