Intrinsic functional clustering of ventral premotor F5 in the macaque brain
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© 2020 Neurophysiological and anatomical data suggest the existence of several functionally distinct regions in the lower arcuate sulcus and adjacent postarcuate convexity of the macaque monkey. Ventral premotor F5c lies on the postarcuate convexity and consists of a dorsal hand-related and ventral mouth-related field. The posterior bank of the lower arcuate contains two additional premotor F5 subfields at different anterior-posterior levels, F5a and F5p. Anterior to F5a, area 44 has been described as a dysgranular zone occupying the deepest part of the fundus of the inferior arcuate. Finally, area GrFO occupies the most rostral portion of the fundus and posterior bank of inferior arcuate and extends ventrally onto the frontal operculum. Recently, data-driven exploratory approaches using resting-state fMRI data have been suggested as a promising non-invasive method for examining the functional organization of the primate brain. Here, we examined to what extent partitioning schemes derived from data-driven clustering analysis of resting-state fMRI data correspond with the proposed organization of the fundus and posterior bank of the macaque arcuate sulcus, as suggested by invasive architectonical, connectional and functional investigations. Using a hierarchical clustering analysis, we could retrieve clusters corresponding to the dorsal and ventral portions of F5c on the postarcuate convexity, F5a and F5p at different antero-posterior locations on the posterior bank of the lower arcuate, area 44 in the fundus, as well as part of area GrFO in the most anterior portion of the fundus. Additionally, each of these clusters displayed distinct whole-brain functional connectivity, in line with previous anatomical tracer and seed-based functional connectivity investigations of F5/44 subdivisions. Overall, our data suggests that hierarchical clustering analysis of resting-state fMRI data can retrieve a fine-grained level of cortical organization that resembles detailed parcellation schemes derived from invasive functional and anatomical investigations.