Prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder in workers with upper extremity complaints
Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
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Copyright ©2016 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. Fisheye STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. Fisheye BACKGROUND: Symptoms of depression, panic disorder (PD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been associated with musculoskeletal complaints and could represent barriers to recovery in injured workers. Fisheye OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression, PD, and PTSD utilizing the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in a cohort of patients presenting to an upper extremity injured-worker clinic; secondarily, to identify any relationships between patients screening positive and patient-reported outcome measures. Fisheye METHODS: In 2010, 418 patients completed the PHQ during their initial evaluation. Patients with PHQ scores exceeding threshold values for symptoms of depression, PD, or PTSD were compared based on patient-reported outcome scores, including the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The prevalence of symptoms, and their relationship with presenting complaints and patient-reported outcomes, were calculated. Fisheye RESULTS: Thirty-one percent of patients scored above thresholds for symptoms of at least 1 mental health disorder. Of those who screened positive, 67% screened positive for depression, 44% for PTSD, and 50% for PD, with 43% of patients positive for multiple symptoms. Patients experiencing neck pain had significantly higher screening rates of depressive symptoms (62.5% versus 20.1%, P = .004) and PD (37.5% versus 12.9%, P = .044) compared with other presenting complaints. Similarly, patients with chronic pain had higher rates of depression (54.5% versus 20.1%, P = .006), PD (63.6% versus 12%, P>.001), and PTSD (36.4% versus 14.8%, P = .05) compared with other presenting complaints. Patients endorsing depressive symptoms had significantly lower SF-36 mental component summary scores (26.3 ± 10.7 versus 37.6 ± 9.9, P<.001) and higher shortened-version DASH (72.3 ± 16.7 versus 61.5 ± 11.1, P = .003) and DASH work scores (86.5 ± 19.2 versus 82.1 ± 20.1, P = .007) compared to patients endorsing other items on the PHQ. Fisheye CONCLUSION: In this prospective cohort study of injured workers, we identified a relatively high prevalence of symptoms of psychological disorders utilizing the PHQ, with one third of injured workers screening positive for symptoms of depression, PD, or PTSD. Further longitudinal follow-up is necessary to determine the impact on treatment outcomes. Fisheye LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Symptom prevalence, level 1b.