Reproducing the Native Posterior Tibial Slope in Cruciate-Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty: Technique and Clinical Implications
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Copyright 2019, SLACK Incorporated. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) profoundly influences knee biomechanics. Using an arbitrary (often 3° to 5°) posterior tibial slope (PTS) in all cases seldom will restore native slope. This study examined whether the native PTS could be reproduced in cruciate-retaining TKA and how this would influence clinical outcome. Radiographic and clinical outcomes of 215 consecutive TKAs using the PFC sigma cruciate-retaining implant were evaluated. The tibial bone cut was planned to be made parallel to the native anatomical slope in the sagittal plane. The PTS was measured with reference to the proximal tibial medullary canal (PTS-M) and the proximal tibial anterior cortex (PTS-C) on true lateral radiographs using a picture achieving and communication system. Knee range of motion (ROM), Knee Society Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) were evaluated. Mean preoperative PTS-M was 6.9°±3.3°, and mean postoperative PTS-M was 7.0°±2.4°. Mean preoperative PTS-C was 12.2°±4.2°, and mean postoperative PTS-C was 12.6°±3.4°. Preoperative and postoperative PTS were not significantly different for both techniques (P>.05). An arbitrary 3° as an acceptable range for PTS-M was achieved in 144 knees (67%) (group 1), and 71 knees (33%) had a difference of more than 3° (group 2). Group 1 had a significantly larger gain in ROM (P=.04) as well as improved Knee Society, WOMAC, and SF-12 physical scores compared with group 2 (P<.01). The modified surgical technique reproduced the native tibial slope in cruciate-retaining TKA. Reproduction of the native PTS within 3° resulted in better clinical outcomes manifested by gain in ROM and knee functional outcome scores. [Orthopedics. 2020; 43(1):e21-e26.].