Medial Longitudinal Arch Angle Presents Significant Differences between Foot Types: A Biplane Fluoroscopy Study
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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© Copyright 2016 by ASME. The structure of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) affects the foot's overall function and its ability to dissipate plantar pressure forces. Previous research on the MLA includes measuring the calcaneal-first metatarsal angle using a static sagittal plane radiograph, a dynamic height-to-length ratio using marker clusters with a multisegment foot model, and a contained angle using single point markers with a multisegment foot model. The objective of this study was to use biplane fluoroscopy to measure a contained MLA angle between foot types: pes planus (low arch), pes cavus (high arch), and normal arch. Fifteen participants completed the study, five from each foot type. Markerless fluoroscopic radiostereometric analysis (fRSA) was used with a three-dimensional model of the foot bones and manually matching those bones to a pair of two-dimensional radiographic images during midstance of gait. Statistically significant differences were found between barefoot arch angles of the normal and pes cavus foot types (p=0.036), as well as between the pes cavus and pes planus foot types (p=0.004). Dynamic walking also resulted in a statistically significant finding compared to the static standing trials (p=0.014). These results support the classification of individuals following a physical assessment by a foot specialist for those with pes cavus and planus foot types. The differences between static and dynamic kinematic measurements were also supported using this novel method.