Osteoarticular distal clavicle autograft for the management of instability-related glenoid bone loss: an anatomic and cadaveric study
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
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© 2020 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees Background: The reconstructive options for instability-related anterior glenoid bone loss include iliac crest autograft, allograft, or coracoid transfer. The use of distal clavicle autograft (DCG) has also been described. The purpose of this imaging and cadaveric study was to examine the dimensions, morphology, and bone density of the DCG and compare it with the Latarjet procedure. Methods: We used 49 computed tomography scans from patients with anterior glenoid bone loss to measure the distal clavicle dimensions and bone density. Four glenoid reconstructions were simulated to compare techniques: DCG inferior surface toward glenoid (DCG inferior), DCG superior, classic Latarjet, and congruent-arc Latarjet. In addition, the morphology of the DCG was assessed on computed tomography and confirmed in 27 cadavers. Results: The mean width of the DCG (11 mm) was significantly greater (P <.001) than that of the classic Latarjet orientation (9 mm) but less (P =.002) than that of the congruent-arc orientation (12 mm). The DCG had a lower bone density than the coracoid (P <.001). The mean articular surface area of the DCG-inferior orientation was 208 mm2, which was greater (P =.013) than that of the DCG-superior orientation (195 mm2) and not significantly different (P =.44) than that of the classic Latarjet orientation (214 mm2). The surface area of the congruent-arc orientation was greater (285 mm2, P <.001) than that of all other graft orientations. The DCG-inferior orientation was able to reconstruct 22% of the glenoid articular surface; DCG-superior orientation, 21%; classic Latarjet orientation, 23%; and congruent-arc orientation, 30%. Three DCG morphologies were identified: square (34%), trapezoidal (53%), and rounded (13%). Conclusions: The distal clavicle osteoarticular graft was able to reconstruct 22% of the glenoid face. Three morphologies of the distal clavicle were identified, with the square and trapezoidal morphologies most amenable for glenoid reconstruction.