Validation of radiostereometric analysis in six degrees of freedom for use with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty
Journal of Biomechanics
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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd A phantom study was conducted to determine bias in motion and bias at zero motion of radiostereometric analysis (RSA) for evaluating implant relative displacement in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). A Sawbones shoulder phantom was fitted with a RTSA implant set and 13 tantalum markers. The model was fixed to a manual micrometer, providing controlled movements though fifteen known increments in translation and twelve increments in rotation (0.02–5.00 mm and 0.1–6.0°), along each translation and rotation axis. Movement between the glenoid and humerus was assessed using beads vs. beads (B/B), model vs. beads (M/B), and model vs. model (M/M) measurement methods in a model-based RSA environment. Bias in motion and bias at zero motion were defined as the difference between measured and accepted reference values, and the difference between double examinations with a theoretical displacement of zero, respectively. Bias in motion ranged from 0.054 ± 0.010 to 0.129 ± 0.014 mm and 0.076 ± 0.025 to 0.126 ± 0.025° (B/B), 0.023 ± 0.009 to 0.126 ± 0.016 mm and 0.111 ± 0.033 to 0.794 ± 0.251° (M/B), and 0.029 ± 0.010 to 0.135 ± 0.030 mm and 0.243 ± 0.088 to 0.384 ± 0.153° (M/M). Bias at zero motion ranged from 0.120 to 0.156 mm and 0.075 to 0.206° (B/B), 0.074 to 0.149 mm and 0.067 to 1.953° (M/B), and 0.069 to 0.259 mm and 0.284 to 1.273° (M/M). This is the first RSA for RTSA study, with results comparable to those validating the use of RSA for hip and knee arthroplasties (accepted as 0.05–0.50 mm and 0.15–1.15°), justifying the potential use of RSA as a tool for measuring implant displacement in the shoulder.