Bone and Joint Institute

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© The Author(s) 2018. Objective: To characterize rates and risk factors for adverse events following distal femoral osteotomy (DFO), high tibial osteotomy (HTO), and tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO) procedures. Design: Patients undergoing DFO, HTO, or TTO procedures during 2005 to 2016 were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Rates of adverse events were characterized for each procedure. Demographic, comorbidity, and procedural factors were tested for association with occurrence of any adverse events. Results: A total of 1,083 patients were identified. Of these, 305 (28%) underwent DFO, 273 (25%) underwent HTO, and 505 (47%) underwent TTO. Mean ages for patients undergoing each procedure were the following: DFO, 51 ± 23 years; HTO, 40 ± 13 years; and TTO, 31 ± 11 years. The most common comorbidities for DFO were hypertension (34%) and smoking (17%); for HTO, hypertension (22%) and smoking (21%); and for TTO, smoking (20%) and hypertension (11%). Independent risk factors for occurrence of any adverse event were age ⩾45 years for DFO (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1, P < 0.001) and HTO (OR = 2.3, P = 0.029), and body mass index >30 for HTO (OR = 2.5, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-5.7, P = 0.031). When all osteotomy procedures were analyzed collectively, additional variables including diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.2, P = 0.017), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 5.5, P = 0.003), and dependent functional status (OR = 3.0, P = 0.004) were associated with adverse events. Conclusions: The total rate of adverse events was not independently associated with the type of osteotomy procedure. In addition, patients with age >45, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and dependent functional status have greater odds for adverse events and should be counseled and monitored accordingly.


© the author(s) 2018

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The final version of this paper has been published in Cartilage, 11(4), October 2020 by SAGE Publications Ltd, All rights reserved. © The Authors, 2020. It is available at:

Cite as:

Cotter, E. J., Gowd, A. K., Bohl, D. D., Getgood, A., Cole, B. J., & Frank, R. M. (2020). Medical Comorbidities and Functional Dependent Living Are Independent Risk Factors for Short-Term Complications Following Osteotomy Procedures about the Knee. CARTILAGE, 11(4), 423–430.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



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