Long-Term Survival Analysis and Outcomes of Meniscal Allograft Transplantation With Minimum 10-Year Follow-Up: A Systematic Review
Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery
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© 2019 Arthroscopy Association of North America Purpose: To investigate the long-term survivorship rates and functional outcomes of meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) in patients with minimum 10-year postoperative follow-up. Methods: Two reviewers independently searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PubMed from database inception for literature related to MAT according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. Data are reported in a narrative summary fashion with descriptive statistics. Results: Eleven studies with a total of 658 patients and 688 MATs were included. Mean age of patients was 33.1 years (range 14-66), of whom 63% were male. Mean survivorship rates were 73.5% at 10-year and 60.3% at 15-year follow-up, with 2 studies reporting 19- and 24-year survivorship of 50% and 15.1%, respectively. Pre- and postoperative Lysholm scores ranged from 36 to 60.5 and 61 to 75, respectively. Pre- and postoperative Tegner scores ranged from 1 to 3 and 2.5 to 4.6, respectively. Postoperative Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subset scores were as follows: Pain: 61.6 to 76.3; Symptoms: 57.9 to 61.8; Function in Daily Living: 68.5 to 79.9; Sport and Recreation: 33.9 to 49.3; Quality of Life: 37.3 to 45.9. Postoperative International Knee Documentation Committee scores ranged from 46 to 77. Regarding surgical technique, 194 MAT bone-fixation technique (53.8%) and 165 MAT suture-only fixation techniques (46.2%) were reported. The most common type of allograft used was cryopreserved (54.5% of the allografts). The most frequent concomitant procedures performed with MAT were to address chondral (20.8% of the cases) and ligament injuries (12.4% of the cases), and realignment procedures (9.4% of the cases). The most common complications observed that were not directly related to concomitant procedures were meniscal allograft partial tears (11.1%), arthrofibrosis (3.6%), and infection (2.0%). Several criteria were used among studies to define failure of MAT, the most common parameters being removal of meniscal allograft (8/11 studies) and conversion to total knee arthroplasty (7/11 studies). Conclusions: MAT can yield good long-term survivorship rates, with 73.5% and 60.3% of allografts remaining functional after 10 and 15 years, respectively. Functional outcomes 10 years after MAT were fair and improved compared with preoperative scores. Level of Evidence: Level IV, systematic review of Level III and IV studies.