Bone and Joint Institute

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Background To evaluate the translations, cross-cultural adaptation procedures and measurement properties of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC), when it is adapted for different cultures. Methods A systematic review was performed, considering different cultural adaptions of the WORC accessible through MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and/or Google Scholar. Included were prospective cohort studies that used an adapted version of the WORC to measure QoL in patients with rotator cuff disorders. All studies were evaluated according to the current guidelines for cross-cultural adaptations and measurement properties. Results The search retrieved 14 studies that met the inclusion criteria. According to the recommended guidelines for cross-cultural adaptations, 8 studies performed 100% of the steps, 2 studies performed 80% of the steps and 4 studies used previously translated measures. When evaluating the studies' psychometric properties based on the quality criteria, none of the studies reported all recommended measurement properties. All of the studies reported the measurement property of reliability, but none of the studies reported agreement. Internal consistency was fully reported by 15% of studies. Construct validity was reported by 43% of studies. Only one study reported 100% of the cross-cultural adaption guidelines and 83% of the quality criteria. Conclusions Although the majority of studies demonstrated proper adaptation procedures, testing of the measurement properties were inadequate. It is recommended that the current adapted versions of the WORC undergo further testing before use in clinical practise, and researchers continue to adapt the WORC for different cultures as it proves to be an appropriate instrument for assessing rotator cuff pathology.


This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

The article was originally published as:

Furtado, R., MacDermid, J.C., Nazari, G. et al. Cross-cultural adaptions and measurement properties of the WORC (Western Ontario rotator cuff index): a systematic review. Health Qual Life Outcomes 18, 17 (2020).

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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