Effects of one's sex and sex hormones on sympathetic responses to chemoreflex activation
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© 2016 The Physiological Society. Sex-dependent differences in baseline sympathetic nerve activity are established, but little information exists on the influence of sex on sympathetic activation during chemoreflex stimulation. In this article, we review the evidence for the effect of sex on chemoreflex-driven increases in sympathetic nerve activity. We also review recent studies which indicate that changes in circulating sex hormones, as initiated by the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptive use, elicit notable changes in the muscle sympathetic activation during chemoreflex stimulation.