Biomechanical optimization of the angle and position for surgical implantation of a straight short stem hip implant
Medical Engineering and Physics
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© 2016 IPEM Conservative hip implants preserve healthy bone for revision surgeries and improve physiological loading; however, they have little supporting biomechanical data with respect to their 3D orientation during implantation. This study endeavored to determine the optimal 3D orientation of a straight short stem hip implant within the proximal femur that would yield a stress distribution most similar to an intact femur. Synthetic femurs were implanted with a stem in one of seven maximum angles or positions and axially loaded, with resultant strain values used to validate a finite element model. Design of experiments was used to analyze the range of potential implant orientations under three gait cycle loading conditions. A global optimal orientation of 9.14 ° valgus, 2.49 ° anteversion, 0.48 mm posterior position, and 0.23 mm inferior position was found to yield stress distributions most similar to the intact femur across the gait cycle range. In general, it was determined that the valgus orientation was optimal throughout the gait cycle, consistently exhibiting a stress distribution more similar to that of the intact femur. Minimal levels of anterior/posterior and inferior positioning were seen to be beneficial in achieving more physiological stresses in specific regions of interest within the proximal femur, while the anteverted orientation was only beneficial in loading under flexion. Overall, orthopaedic surgeons should aim to implant straight short stem hip implants in valgus up to 10 °, with an otherwise neutral position and version, unless some degree of deviation would be beneficial for a patient-specific reason. This work has implications for the best surgical placement of straight short stem hip implants to yield maximal biomechanical stability.