Bone repair and regenerative biomaterials: Towards recapitulating the microenvironment
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© 2019 by the authors. Biomaterials and tissue engineering scaffolds play a central role to repair bone defects. Although ceramic derivatives have been historically used to repair bone, hybrid materials have emerged as viable alternatives. The rationale for hybrid bone biomaterials is to recapitulate the native bone composition to which these materials are intended to replace. In addition to the mechanical and dimensional stability, bone repair scaffolds are needed to provide suitable microenvironments for cells. Therefore, scaffolds serve more than a mere structural template suggesting a need for better and interactive biomaterials. In this review article, we aim to provide a summary of the current materials used in bone tissue engineering. Due to the ever-increasing scientific publications on this topic, this review cannot be exhaustive; however, we attempted to provide readers with the latest advance without being redundant. Furthermore, every attempt is made to ensure that seminal works and significant research findings are included, with minimal bias. After a concise review of crystalline calcium phosphates and non-crystalline bioactive glasses, the remaining sections of the manuscript are focused on organic-inorganic hybrid materials.