Retrospective 3D motion correction using spherical navigator echoes
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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Purpose To develop and evaluate a rapid spherical navigator echo (SNAV) motion correction technique, then apply it for retrospective correction of brain images. Methods The pre-rotated, template matching SNAV method (preRot-SNAV) was developed in combination with a novel hybrid baseline strategy, which includes acquired and interpolated templates. Specifically, the SNAV templates are only rotated around X- and Y-axis; for each rotated SNAV, simulated baseline templates that mimic object rotation about the Z-axis were interpolated. The new method was first evaluated with phantom experiments. Then, a customized SNAV-interleaved gradient echo sequence was used to image three volunteers performing directed head motion. The SNAV motion measurements were used to retrospectively correct the brain images. Experiments were performed using a 3.0 T whole-body MRI scanner and both single and 8-channel head coils. Results Phantom rotations and translations measured using the hybrid baselines agreed to within 0.9° and 1 mm compared to those measured with the original preRot-SNAV method. Retrospective motion correction of in vivo images using the hybrid preRot-SNAV effectively corrected for head rotation up to 4° and 4 mm. Conclusions The presented hybrid approach enables the acquisition of pre-rotated baseline templates in as little as 2.5 s, and results in accurate measurement of rotations and translations. Retrospective 3D motion correction successfully reduced motion artifacts in vivo.