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Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging



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© 2019 Valeriy G. Ostapchenko et al. Apoptosis is a feature of stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet there is no accepted method to detect or follow apoptosis in the brain in vivo. We developed a bifunctional tracer [ 68 Ga]Ga-TC3-OGDOTA containing a cell-penetrating peptide separated from fluorescent Oregon Green and 68 Ga-bound labels by the caspase-3 recognition peptide DEVD. We hypothesized that this design would allow [ 68 Ga]Ga-TC3-OGDOTA to accumulate in apoptotic cells. In vitro, Ga-TC3-OGDOTA labeled apoptotic neurons following exposure to camptothecin, oxygen-glucose deprivation, and β-amyloid oligomers. In vivo, PET showed accumulation of [ 68 Ga]Ga-TC3-OGDOTA in the brain of mouse models of stroke or AD. Optical clearing revealed colocalization of [ 68 Ga]Ga-TC3-OGDOTA and cleaved caspase-3 in brain cells. In stroke, [ 68 Ga]Ga-TC3-OGDOTA accumulated in neurons in the penumbra area, whereas in AD mice [ 68 Ga]Ga-TC3-OGDOTA was found in single cells in the forebrain and diffusely around amyloid plaques. In summary, this bifunctional tracer is selectively associated with apoptotic cells in vitro and in vivo in brain disease models and represents a novel tool for apoptosis detection that can be used in neurodegenerative diseases.


Copyright © 2019 Valeriy G. Ostapchenko et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Citation of this paper:

Valeriy G. Ostapchenko, Jonatan Snir, Mojmir Suchy, Jue Fan, M. Rebecca Cobb, Blaine A. Chronik, Michael Kovacs, Vania F. Prado, Robert H. E. Hudson, Stephen H. Pasternak, Marco A. M. Prado, Robert Bartha, "Detection of Active Caspase-3 in Mouse Models of Stroke and Alzheimer’s Disease with a Novel Dual Positron Emission Tomography/Fluorescent Tracer [68Ga]Ga-TC3-OGDOTA", Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging, vol. 2019, Article ID 6403274, 17 pages, 2019.

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