Ultrasound Guidance for Beating Heart Mitral Valve Repair Augmented by Synthetic Dynamic CT
IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
URL with Digital Object Identifier
© 1982-2012 IEEE. Minimally invasive valvular intervention commonly requires intra-procedural navigation to provide spatial and temporal information of relevant cardiac structures and device components. Recently intra-procedural trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been exploited for this purpose due to its accessibility, low cost, ease of use, and real-time imaging capacity. However, the position and orientation of tissue targets relative to surgical tools can be challenging to perceive, particularly using 2D imaging planes. In this paper, we propose the use of CT images to provide a high-quality 3D context to enhance ultrasound images through image registration, providing an augmented guidance system with minimal impact on standard clinical workflow. We also describe an approach to generate synthetic 4D CT images through non-rigid registration of available ultrasound. This can be employed to avoid a requirement for higher radiation. Synthetic CT images were validated through direct comparison of synthetic and real multi-phase CT images. Validation of CT and ultrasound image registration was performed for both dynamic and synthetic CT image datasets. Our results demonstrated that the synthetically generated dynamic CT images provide similar anatomical representation for relevant cardiac anatomy relative to real dynamic CT images, and similar high registration accuracy that can be achieved for intra-procedural TEE to this versus real dynamic CT images.