Casein Kinase 2 β-Subunit Is a Regulator of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Signaling
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Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a crucial role during embryonic development and regulate processes as diverse as neurogenesis, skeletal formation, and hematopoesis. They signal through a hetero-oligomer complex of BMP receptors. Binding of the ligand to the receptors activates several pathways, including Smad and p38. BMP signaling is controlled in the extracellular space, the plasma membrane, and the intracellular space; however, the mechanism of receptor signaling at the plasma membrane and proteins that regulate this process still need to be identified. The experiments presented here identify the protein kinase casein kinase II (CK2) as a BMP receptor type Ia (BRIa) interacting protein. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer revealed that this interaction occurs at the plasma membrane. BMP2 stimulation of C2C12 cells leads to the release of CK2 from BRIa. Blocking this interaction with specific peptides that inhibit the binding sites for CK2 on BRIa demonstrated a redistribution of BRIa on the plasma membrane. Signaling was initiated once CK2 was released from BRIa, leading to the mineralization of C2C12 cells. These data suggest that CK2 is a negative regulator of BMP signaling and osteoblast differentiation.