Department of Medicine Publications

Title

Comprehensive Analysis of Genomic Variation in the LPA Locus and Its Relationship to Plasma Lipoprotein(a) in South Asians, Chinese, and European Caucasians

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2-2010

Journal

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics

Volume

3

Issue

1

First Page

39

Last Page

46

URL with Digital Object Identifier

http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.109.907642

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Functional copy number variation in the apolipoprotein(a) gene (LPA) underlies a variable number of protein kringle domains repeated in tandem in the lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] particle. Genomic analysis of LPA, including both single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and kringle IV type 2 (KIV-2) copy number, has yet to be performed.

METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we genotyped 49 SNPs within 100 kb of LPA in a multiethnic sample comprising South Asians (n=330), Chinese (n=304), and European Caucasians (n=272). Second, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we estimated the KIV-2 copy number in each sample. European Caucasians had the lowest KIV-2 copy number but displayed the strongest correlation between KIV-2 copy number and plasma Lp(a) concentration (r(s)=-0.31, P=4.2x10(-7)). SNP rs10455872, only prevalent in European Caucasians, was strongly associated with both plasma Lp(a) concentration (P=4.2x10(-29)) and KIV-2 copy number (P=7.2x10(-5)). LPA SNP rs6415084, within the same haplotype block as the KIV-2 variation, was significantly associated with both Lp(a) concentration and KIV-2 copy number in the same direction in all 3 ethnicities [Lp(a), P=5.3x10(-7); KIV-2, P=2.6x10(-4)]. SNPs and KIV-2 copy number together explain a larger proportion of variation in plasma Lp(a) concentrations in European Caucasians (36%) than in Chinese (27%) or South Asians (21%).

CONCLUSIONS: LPA SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium with KIV-2 copy number, but KIV-2 copy number explains an increment in plasma Lp(a) variation over SNPs alone. Thus, both SNPs and KIV-2 copy number should be included in future genetic epidemiology studies of Lp(a).