Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Degree

Master of Science

Program

Planetary Science

Supervisor

Dr. Gordon osinski, Dr. Livio Tornabene, Dr. Dazhi Jiang

Abstract

Central uplifts in large meteorite impact craters provide valuable information about the subsurface geology of planetary bodies. Compared to impact craters on Earth, Martian central uplifts can be well exposed and can be mapped in detail by using satellite imagery. Central uplifts preserve morphological and structural features formed as result of the combination of emplacement during the impact process, post impact modification, and erosion over time. In this study, the Oudemans Crater central uplift (the largest central uplift with layers on Mars) was investigated. Oudemans (9.89 S, 268.1 E) is 124 km in diameter and is located in the Sinai Planum at the western end of Valles Marineris canyon system; it also is part of the Tharsis province, which is major volcanic region on Mars. The central uplift was structurally and geomorphologically mapped and analyzed using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HIRISE) imagery combined with other data sets tied to topographic data as a base map in Arc-GIS. The Oudemans Crater central uplift was divided into five main geomorphologic units: 1) exposed bedrock; 2) megabreccia; 3) clast-rich impact melt rock; 4) clast-poor and pitted impact melt; and 5) erosional deposits (mass wasting unit and aeolian deposit) units. Faults, folds, dykes, and deformed bedding were also mapped. Through structural mapping, deformed, folded, and fractured layers were mapped as they provide a frame of reference with respect to the structural deformation of the uplift. The preferred orientation of faults appears to be perpendicular to the impact trajectory (obliquity trend to the central uplift) and to be thrust faults. Four obvious folds were mapped towards the centre of the uplift consistent with increased deformation towards the crater centre. Dykes are typically perpendicular to the bedrock and can be seen mostly in the centre of the central uplift.


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