Title

A Mass Vaccination Campaign Targeting Adults and Children to Prevent Typhoid Fever in Hechi; Expanding the Use of Vi Polysaccharide Vaccine in Southeast China: A Cluster-randomized Trial

Authors

Jin Yang, Guangxi Center for Disease Control, Nanning, Guangxi, China
Camilo J. Acosta, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea
Guo-ai Si, Hechi Anti-epidemic Center, Hechi, Guangxi, China
Jun Zeng, Guangxi Center for Disease Control, Nanning, Guangxi, China
Cui-yun Li, Guangxi Center for Disease Control, Nanning, Guangxi, China
Da-bin Liang, Guangxi Center for Disease Control, Nanning, Guangxi, China
R. Leon Ochiai, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea
Anne-Laure Page, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea
M. Carolina Danovaro-Holliday, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea
Jie Zhang, Guangxi Center for Disease Control, Nanning, Guangxi, China
Bao-de Zhou, Hechi Anti-epidemic Center, Hechi, Guangxi, China
He-zhuang Liao, Guangxi Center for Disease Control, Nanning, Guangxi, China
Ming-liu Wang, Guangxi Center for Disease Control, Nanning, Guangxi, China
Dong-mei Tan, Guangxi Center for Disease Control, Nanning, Guangxi, China
Zhen-zhu Tang, Guangxi Center for Disease Control, Nanning, Guangxi, China
Jian Gong, Guangxi Center for Disease Control, Nanning, Guangxi, China
Jin-kyung Park, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea
Mohammad Ali, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea
Bernard Ivanoff, World Health Organization
Gui-chen Liang, Hechi Anti-epidemic Center, Hechi, Guangxi, China
Hong-hui Yang, Guangxi Center for Disease Control, Nanning, Guangxi, China
Tikki Pang, World Health Organization
Zhi-yi Xu, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea
Allan Donner, University of Western OntarioFollow
Claudia M. Galindo, Guangxi Center for Disease Control, Nanning, Guangxi, China
Bai-qing Dong, Guangxi Center for Disease Control, Nanning, Guangxi, China
John D. Clemens, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

5-18-2005

Journal

BMC Public Health

Volume

5

Issue

49

Abstract

Background: One of the goals of this study was to learn the coverage, safety and logistics of a mass vaccination campaign against typhoid fever in children and adults using locally produced typhoid Vi polysaccharide (PS) and group A meningococcal PS vaccines in southern China.

Methods: The vaccination campaign targeted 118,588 persons in Hechi, Guangxi Province, aged between 5 to 60 years, in 2003. The study area was divided into 107 geographic clusters, which were randomly allocated to receive one of the single-dose parenteral vaccines. All aspects regarding vaccination logistics, feasibility and safety were documented and systematically recorded. Results of the logistics, feasibility and safety are reported.

Results: The campaign lasted 5 weeks and the overall vaccination coverage was 78%. On average, the 30 vaccine teams gave immunizations on 23 days. Vaccine rates were higher in those aged < or = 15 years (90%) than in adolescents and young adults (70%). Planned mop-up activities increased the coverage by 17%. The overall vaccine wastage was 11%. The cold chain was maintained and documented. 66 individuals reported of adverse events out of all vaccinees, where fever (21%), malaise (19%) and local redness (19%) were the major symptoms; no life-threatening event occurred. Three needle-sharp events were reported.

Conclusion: The mass immunization proved feasible and safe, and vaccine coverage was high. Emphasis should be placed on: injection safety measures, community involvement and incorporation of mop-up strategies into any vaccination campaign. School-based and all-age Vi mass immunizations programs are potentially important public health strategies for prevention of typhoid fever in high-risk populations in southern China.

Notes

Published in: BMC Public Health, 2005, 5:49. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-49