Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Leads to Vascular Complications
The presence of hyperglycemia in individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is associated with systemic complications within multiple organ systems. Specifically, patients with T2DM have an increased risk of developing vascular endothelial damage. Interestingly, patients with T2 DM are often found to be deficient in vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin that not only plays a role in bone growth and gastrointestinal nutrient absorption, but insulin resistance as well. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize the literature that associates vitamin D deficiencies with vascular complications in both human and animal models with T2DM. This review will also summarize developments in genetic testing for VDR mutations and their potential role in diabetes progression, as well as the effects of vitamin D supplementation in patients with T2DM. Since T2DM is an increasingly prevalent disease, it is important to continue evaluating current research that investigates not only genetic causal factors for the disease, but also preventative options (such as vitamin D supplementation) that could potentially be used alongside pharmacological treatments.