This paper explores the public debate of "Afrocentric Schools", as an alternative education system. In an attempt to explain the relative underachievement of African-American students, various theoretical perspectives concerning the black-white achievement gap are presented. Furthermore, the author examines existing empirical evidence concerning the achievement/underachievement of African-American students, offering either support or disapproval for Afrocentric Schools. In addition, The Africentric Alternative School in Toronto is utilized as a case study to examine the efficacy of Afrocentric Schools. The examined empirical evidence illustrates that the Afrocentric School debate is not so "black and white". Rather, the black-white achievement gap depends on the specific cultural dispositions and context of the school. Therefore, the author recommends that decisions to implement race-based schools should reflect research conducted at the local level.