Bertina Lou

Document Type


Publication Date



Liberal market capitalism permeates daily life and carries important social consequences for Canadian citizens. When social relationships between individuals are mediated by class position under a free market society, an interesting question about the relationship between individuals and society itself can be raised: does the amount of economic resources possessed by an individual influence their sense of belonging to Canada? This study examines Canadians’ economic positions, measured by annual personal income, as a determinant of their sense of belonging to Canada. It also investigates the role of known correlates of exclusion, such as being a victim of discrimination, having visible minority status, and being of a particular sex. Although this study finds weak support for a relationship between annual personal income and a sense of belonging to Canada, it determines that an overwhelming majority of Canadians feel a strong sense of belonging to their country regardless of their economic position.


Regional Winner in the Sociology and Social Policy category.