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Note: Since 1995 the Lower Mainland has been divided into two regional districts. The Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR), established in 1973, prohibits urban development in much of the region. Urban development has been largely contiguous and compact, forming discrete settlements in the ALR’s “holes.”
Sources: 1949 urbanization redrawn from The Way Ahead; 2011 redrawn from Z. Taylor, Burchfield, and Kramer, “Alberta Cities at the Crossroads.”
Taylor, Zack, "Figure 6.2 Administrative boundaries, urbanization, and policy areas in Vancouver.pdf" (2019). Shaping the Metropolis: Institutions and Urbanization in the United States and Canada by Zack Taylor. 18.