Resting-state connectivity identifies distinct functional networks in macaque cingulate cortex.
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)
Subregions of the cingulate cortex represent prominent intersections in the structural networks of the primate brain. The relevance of the cingulate to the structure and dynamics of large-scale networks ultimately requires a link to functional connectivity. Here, we map fine-grained functional connectivity across the complete extent of the macaque (Macaca fascicularis) cingulate cortex and delineate subdivisions pertaining to distinct identifiable networks. In particular, we identified 4 primary networks representing the functional spectrum of the cingulate: somatomotor, attention-orienting, executive, and limbic. The cingulate nodes of these networks originated from separable subfields along the rostral-to-caudal axis and were characterized by positive and negative correlations of spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent activity. These findings represent a critical component for understanding how the anterior and midcingulate cortices integrate and shape information processing during task performance. The connectivity patterns also suggest future electrophysiological targets that may reveal new functional representations including those involved in conflict monitoring.