Physics and Astronomy Publications
The Physical Properties of Low-redshift FeLoBAL Quasars. I. Spectral-synthesis Analysis of the Broad Absorption-line (BAL) Outflows Using SimBAL
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We present the first systematic study of 50 low-redshift (0.66 < z < 1.63) iron low-ionization broad absorption-line quasars (FeLoBALQs) using SimBAL, which represents a more than five-fold increase in the number of FeLoBALQs with detailed absorption line spectral analyses. We found the outflows have a wide range of ionization parameters, − 4 ≲ log U ≲ 1.2 and densities, 2.8 ≲ log n ≲ 8 [ cm − 3 ] . The objects in our sample showed FeLoBAL gas located at a wide range of distances 0 ≲ log R ≲ 4.4 [pc], although we do not find any evidence for disk winds (with R ≪ 0.01 pc) in our sample. The outflow strength primarily depends on the outflow velocity with faster outflows found in quasars that are luminous or that have flat or redder spectral energy distributions. We found that ∼18% of the FeLoBALQs in the sample have the significantly powerful outflows needed for quasar feedback. Eight objects showed overlapping troughs in the spectra, and we identified eleven loitering outflow objects, a new class of FeLoBALQs that are characterized by low outflow velocities and high column density winds located log R ≲ 1 [pc] from the central engine. The FeLoBALs in loitering outflows objects do not show properties expected for radiatively driven winds, and these objects may represent a distinct population among FeLoBALQs. We discuss how the potential acceleration mechanisms and the origins of the FeLoBAL winds may differ for outflows at different locations in quasars.
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