Human 21T Breast Epithelial Cell Lines Mimic Breast Cancer Progression in Vivo and in Vitro and Show Stage-specific Gene Expression Patterns
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Early breast cancer progression involves advancement through specific morphological stages including atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive mammary carcinoma (IMC), although not necessarily always in a linear fashion. Observational studies have examined genetic, epigenetic and gene expression differences in breast tissues representing these stages of progression, but model systems which would allow for experimental testing of specific factors influencing transition through these stages are scarce. The 21T series cell lines, all originally derived from the same patient with metastatic breast cancer, have been proposed to represent a mammary tumor progression series. We report here that three of the 21T cell lines indeed mimic specific stages of human breast cancer progression (21PT-derived cells, ADH; 21NT-derived cells, DCIS; 21MT-1 cells, IMC) when grown in the mammary fat pad of nude mice, albeit after a year. To develop a more rapid, readily manipulatable in vitro assay for examining the biological differences between these cell lines, we have used a 3D Matrigel system. When the three cell lines were grown in 3D Matrigel, they showed characteristic morphologies, in which quantifiable aspects of stage-specific in vivo behaviors (ie, differences in acinar structure formation, cell polarization, colony morphology, cell proliferation, cell invasion) were recapitulated in a reproducible fashion. Gene expression profiling revealed a characteristic pattern for each of the three cell lines. Interestingly, Wnt pathway alterations are particularly predominant in the early transition from 21PTci (ADH) to 21NTci (DCIS), whereas alterations in expression of genes associated with control of cell motility and invasion phenomena are more prominent in the later transition of 21NTci (DCIS) to 21MT-1 (IMC). This system thus reveals potential therapeutic targets and will provide a means of testing the influences of identified genes on transitions between these stages of pre-malignant to malignant growth.