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Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors (SCBT) are at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes compared to the general population. Adiposity is an important risk factor for the development of these outcomes, and identifying biomarkers of adiposity may help the stratification of survivors based on their cardiovascular risk or allow for early screening and interventions to improve cardiometabolic outcomes. Leptin is an adipokine that positively correlates with the adipose mass in the general population and is a predictor of adverse cardiometabolic outcomes, yet its association with adiposity in SCBT has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine if leptin levels are associated with the adipose mass in SCBT, and to define its predictors. This cross-sectional study included 74 SCBT (n = 32 females) with 126 non-cancer controls (n = 59 females). Total adiposity was measured using Bioelectrical Impendence Analysis (BIA) and central adiposity was measured using waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). We used multivariable linear regression analysis to determine if leptin predicts adiposity in SCBT and adjusted for age, sex, puberty, and cancer status. Leptin correlated strongly with total (p < 0.001) and central (WHR p = 0.001; WHtR p < 0.001) adiposity in SCBT and non-cancer controls. In conclusion, leptin is a potential biomarker for adiposity in SCBT, and further investigation is needed to clarify if leptin is a predictor of future cardiometabolic risk in SCBT.
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