The transcription factor PU.1 mediates enhancer-promoter looping that is required for IL-1 eRNA and mRNA transcription in mouse melanoma and macrophage cell lines
Journal of Biological Chemistry
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The DNA-binding protein PU.1 is a myeloid lineage– determining and pioneering transcription factor due to its ability to bind “closed” genomic sites and maintain “open” chromatin state for myeloid lineage–specific genes. The precise mechanism of PU.1 in cell type–specific programming is yet to be elucidated. The melanoma cell line B16BL6, although it is nonmyeloid lineage, expressed Toll-like receptors and activated the transcription factor NF-B upon stimulation by the bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide. However, it did not produce cytokines, such as IL-1 mRNA. Ectopic PU.1 expression induced remodeling of a novel distal enhancer (located 10 kbp upstream of the IL-1 transcription start site), marked by nucleosome depletion, enhancer-promoter looping, and histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac). PU.1 induced enhancer-promoter looping and H3K27ac through two distinct PU.1 regions. These PU.1-dependent events were independently required for subsequent signal-dependent and co-dependent events: NF-B recruitment and further H3K27ac, both of which were required for enhancer RNA (eRNA) transcription. In murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, these PU.1-dependent events were constitutively established and readily expressed eRNA and subsequently IL-1 mRNA by lipopolysaccharide stimulation. In summary, this study showed a sequence of epigenetic events in programming IL-1 transcription by the distal enhancer priming and eRNA production mediated by PU.1 and the signal-dependent transcription factor NF-B.
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