Summer Season and Recommended Vitamin D Intake Support Adequate Vitamin D Status throughout Pregnancy in Healthy Canadian Women and Their Newborns
Journal of Nutrition
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Background: Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy is reported as a prevalent public health problem. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate, in pregnant Canadian women, 1) vitamin D intake, 2) maternal and cord serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] and maternal 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D], and 3) factors associated with maternal serum 25(OH)D. Methods: Women (n = 187; mean prepregnancy BMI 24.4 kg/m2, mean age 31 y) recruited to the Be Healthy in Pregnancy study provided fasting blood samples and nutrient intake at 12-17 (early) and 36-38 (late) weeks of gestation, and cord blood. Vitamin D intakes (Nutritionist Pro™) and serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations (LC-tandem MS) were measured. Results: Vitamin D intake was comparable in early and late pregnancy [median (IQR) = 586 (459, 859) compared with 689 (544, 974) IU/d; P = 0.83], with 71% consumed as supplements. Serum 25(OH)D was significantly higher in late pregnancy (mean ± SD: 103.1 ± 29.3 nmol/L) than in early pregnancy (82.5 ± 22.5 nmol/L; P < 0.001) and no vitamin D deficiency (<30 nmol/L) occurred. Serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations were significantly higher in late pregnancy (101.1 ± 26.9 pmol/L) than in early pregnancy (82.2 ± 19.2 pmol/L, P < 0.001, n = 84). Cord serum 25(OH)D concentrations averaged 55% of maternal concentrations. In adjusted multivariate analyses, maternal vitamin D status in early pregnancy was positively associated with summer season (est.β: 13.07; 95% CI: 5.46, 20.69; P < 0.001) and supplement intake (est.β: 0.01; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.01; P < 0.001); and in late pregnancy with summer season (est.β: 24.4; 95% CI: 15.6, 33.2; P < 0.001), nonmilk dairy intake (est.β: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.32; P = 0.029), and supplement intake (est.β: 0.01; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.01; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Summer season and recommended vitamin D intakes supported adequate vitamin D status throughout pregnancy and in cord blood at >50 nmol/L in healthy Canadian pregnant women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01693510.