Paediatrics Publications

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International Journal of Molecular Sciences





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c-Raf is a central component of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway which is implicated in the development of many cancer types. RanBPM (Ran-Binding Protein M) was previously shown to inhibit c-Raf expression, but how this is achieved remains unclear. RanBPM is part of a recently identified E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, the CTLH (C-terminal to LisH) complex. Here, we show that the CTLH complex regulates c-Raf expression through a control of its degradation. Several domains of RanBPM were found necessary to regulate c-Raf levels, but only the C-terminal CRA (CT11-RanBPM) domain showed direct interaction with c-Raf. c-Raf ubiquitination and degradation is promoted by the CTLH complex. Furthermore, A-Raf and B-Raf protein levels are also regulated by the CTLH complex, indicating a common regulation of Raf family members. Finally, depletion of CTLH subunits RMND5A (required for meiotic nuclear division 5A) and RanBPM resulted in enhanced proliferation and loss of RanBPM promoted tumour growth in a mouse model. This study uncovers a new mode of control of c-Raf expression through regulation of its degradation by the CTLH complex. These findings also uncover a novel target of the CTLH complex, and suggest that the CTLH complex has activities that suppress cell transformation and tumour formation.