Neonatal outcomes of extremely preterm infants exposed to maternal hypertension and cigarette smoking.
Journal of Perinatology
URL with Digital Object Identifier
To study the outcomes of extremely preterm infants of hypertensive mothers who smoke.
This retrospective cohort study included infants born between 2003 and 2012 at <29 >weeks' gestation and admitted to neonatal intensive care units participating in the Canadian Neonatal Network. Infants were divided into four mutually exclusive groups. Infants of hypertensive mothers who smoked; infants of hypertensive, non-smoking mothers; infants of normotensive mothers who smoked; and infants of normotensive, non-smoking mothers. Using infants of normotensive, non-smoking mothers as the reference group, neonatal outcomes were compared between the groups. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using univariate and multivariate regression analysis.
Of the 12,307 eligible infants, 172 had hypertensive mothers who smoked, 1689 had hypertensive non-smoking mothers, 1535 had normotensive mothers who smoked, and 8911 had normotensive non-smoking mothers. Compared to infants of normotensive non-smoking mothers, infants of hypertensive mothers, regardless of smoking status, had higher odds of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (AORs of smokers 1.62; 95% CI 1.12-2.35 and of non-smokers 1.43; 95% CI 1.24-1.64). There was no difference in the odds of mortality and retinopathy of prematurity stage ≥3 between the groups. Infants of hypertensive, non-smoking mothers had decreased odds of intraventricular hemorrhage >grade 2 and higher odds of necrotizing enterocolitis. There was decreased odds of hypertension if the mother was a smoker (AOR 0.71; 95% CI 0.59-0.85).
Maternal hypertension is associated with increased rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, irrespective of smoking status.
Article available at Journal of Perinatology