Intranasal ketamine for anesthetic premedication in children: a systematic review.
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In children, intravenous anesthetic premedication can be distressing. Intranasal (IN) ketamine offers a less invasive approach.
Materials and Methods
We included randomized trials of IN ketamine in anesthetic premedication in children 0-19 years. We performed electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, clinical trial registries and conference proceedings.
Among the 23 trials (n = 1680) included, IN ketamine adequately sedated 220/311 (70%) for face mask application, 217/308 (70%) for caregiver separation, 200/371 (54%) for iv. insertion and 19/30 (63%) for monitor application. Vomiting was the most common adverse effect (35/1579 [2.2%]).
There is a need for sufficiently powered, methodologically rigorous trials, using psychometrically evaluated, objective outcome measures to meaningfully inform practice.