Circulating Pro-Vascular Progenitor Cell Depletion During Type 2 Diabetes: Translational Insights Into the Prevention of Ischemic Complications in Diabetes
JACC: Basic to Translational Science
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Detection of vascular regenerative cell exhaustion is required to combat ischemic complications during type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). We used high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and surface marker co-expression to develop a high-throughput flow cytometry–based assay to quantify circulating proangiogenic and proinflammatory cell content in the peripheral blood of individuals with T2D. Circulating proangiogenic monocytes expressing anti-inflammatory M2 markers were decreased in patients with T2D. Individuals with longer duration of T2D exhibited reduced frequencies of circulating proangiogenic ALDH hi CD34+ progenitor cells with primitive (CD133) and migratory (CXCR4) phenotypes. This approach consistently detected increased inflammatory cell burden and decreased provascular progenitor content in individuals with T2D.