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To address the inadequacy of current assays, we developed a directed in vivo lymphangiogenesis assay (DIVLA) by modifying an established directed in vivo angiogenesis assay. Silicon tubes (angioreactors) were implanted in the dorsal flanks of nude mice. Tubes contained either growth factor-reduced basement membrane extract (BME)-alone (negative control) or BME-containing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D (positive control for lymphangiogenesis) or FGF-2/VEGF-A (positive control for angiogenesis) or a high VEGF-D-expressing breast cancer cell line MDA-MD-468LN (468-LN), or VEGF-D-silenced 468LN. Lymphangiogenesis was detected superficially with Evans Blue dye tracing and measured in the cellular contents of angioreactors by multiple approaches: lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (Lyve1) protein (immunofluorescence) and mRNA (qPCR) expression and a visual scoring of lymphatic vs blood capillaries with dual Lyve1 (or PROX-11 or Podoplanin)/Cd31 immunostaining in cryosections. Lymphangiogenesis was absent with BME, high with VEGF-D or VEGF-D-producing 468LN cells and low with VEGF-D-silenced 468LN. Angiogenesis was absent with BME, high with FGF-2/VEGF-A, moderate with 468LN or VEGF-D and low with VEGF-D-silenced 468LN. The method was reproduced in a syngeneic murine C3L5 tumor model in C3H/HeJ mice with dual Lyve1/Cd31 immunostaining. Thus, DIVLA presents a practical and sensitive assay of lymphangiogenesis, validated with multiple approaches and markers. It is highly suited to identifying pro-and anti-lymphangiogenic agents, as well as shared or distinct mechanisms regulating lymphangiogenesis vs angiogenesis, and is widely applicable to research in vascular/tumor biology. © 2013 USCAP, Inc. All rights reserved.