Diabetic ketoacidosis-associated stroke in children and youth
Stroke Research and Treatment
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Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a state of severe insulin deficiency, either absolute or relative, resulting in hyperglycemia and ketonemia. Although possibly underappreciated, up to 10 of cases of intracerebral complications associated with an episode of DKA, and/or its treatment, in children and youth are due to hemorrhage or ischemic brain infarction. Systemic inflammation is present in DKA, with resultant vascular endothelial perturbation that may result in coagulopathy and increased hemorrhagic risk. Thrombotic risk during DKA is elevated by abnormalities in coagulation factors, platelet activation, blood volume and flow, and vascular reactivity. DKA-associated cerebral edema may also predispose to ischemic injury and hemorrhage, though cases of stroke without concomitant cerebral edema have been identified. We review the current literature regarding the pathogenesis of stroke during an episode of DKA in children and youth. Copyright © 2011 Jennifer Ruth Foster et al.