Discovery of novel plasma biomarker ratios to discriminate traumatic brain injury
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Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. Despite increased awareness, reliable biomarkers are urgently needed to aid in all forms of traumatic brain injury diagnosis and prognosis. Methods: Here, we aim to assess the diagnostic utility of known and novel TBI biomarkers in a pilot patient cohort of severe TBI (sTBI) patients and healthy controls. We analyzed concentrations of S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B), neuron specific enolase (NSE), human kallikrein 6 (hK6) and prostaglandin D2 synthase (PGDS) using ELISA immunoassays. Results: Plasma levels of hK6 and PGDS were significantly lower in sTBI compared with controls, while S100B and NSE were significantly higher. Furthermore, we show that ratios of NSE and S100B with hK6 and PGDS may be able to determine the presence of sTBI better than single markers alone. Conclusions: The findings presented here represent a starting point for future validation, where biomarker ratios can be tested in independent TBI cohorts.