Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
URL with Digital Object Identifier
Rac1 is a small GTPase and plays key roles in multiple cellular processes including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether Rac1 activation during myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) contributes to arrhythmogenesis is not fully understood. We aimed to study the effects of Rac1 inhibition on store overload-induced Ca2+ release (SOICR) and ventricular arrhythmia during myocardial I/R. Adult Rac1f/f and cardiac-specific Rac1 knockdown (Rac1ckd) mice were subjected to myocardial I/R and their electrocardiograms (ECGs) were monitored for ventricular arrhythmia. Myocardial Rac1 activity was increased and ventricular arrhythmia was induced during I/R in Rac1f/f mice. Remarkably, I/R-induced ventricular arrhythmia was significantly decreased in Rac1ckd compared to Rac1f/f mice. Furthermore, treatment with Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 decreased I/R-induced ventricular arrhythmia. Ca2+ imaging analysis showed that in response to a 6 mM external Ca2+ concentration challenge, SOICR was induced with characteristic spontaneous intracellular Ca2+ waves in Rac1f/f cardiomyocytes. Notably, SOICR was diminished by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of Rac1 in adult cardiomyocytes. Moreover, I/R-induced ROS production and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) oxidation were significantly inhibited in the myocardium of Rac1ckd mice. We conclude that Rac1 activation induces ventricular arrhythmia during myocardial I/R. Inhibition of Rac1 suppresses SOICR and protects against ventricular arrhythmia. Blockade of Rac1 activation may represent a new paradigm for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia in ischaemic heart disease.