Maternal, pregnancy and fetal outcomes in de novo anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease in pregnancy: A systematic review
Clinical Kidney Journal
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Background Outside of pregnancy, anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, there is limited knowledge regarding de novo anti-GBM disease in pregnancy. Methods A systematic review was performed to identify maternal, pregnancy and fetal outcomes in de novo anti-GBM disease in pregnancy. Studies were selected from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library databases and conference proceedings, without language restriction. Results Data from eight patients were derived from seven case reports and one unpublished case. Most (6/8) patients presented after the first trimester. During pregnancy, acute kidney injury (5/8), anemia (5/8), hematuria (8/8) and proteinuria (8/8) were common. When hemodialysis was required antepartum (5/8), renal function recovery to independence of renal replacement was unlikely (2/5). While pulmonary involvement was common (5/8), no permanent damage was reported (0/8). The majority of cases ended in live births (6/8) although prematurity (6/6), intrauterine growth restriction (2/6), small for gestational age (4/6) and complications of prematurity (1/6) were common. When anti-GBM levels were tested in the living newborn, they were detectable (2/5), but no newborn renal or lung disease was reported (0/6). Complications in pregnancy included gestational diabetes (3/8), hyperemesis gravidarum (2/8) and preeclampsia (2/8). Conclusions Live births can be achieved in de novo anti-GBM disease in pregnancy, but are commonly associated with adverse maternal, pregnancy and fetal outcomes. Only with awareness of common presentations, and management strategies can outcomes be optimized.