Effects of global O-GlcNAcylation on galectin gene-expression profiles in human cancer cell lines
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Background/Aim: The effects of O-linked β-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) inhibitors on galectin gene expression profiles were examined in MCF7, HT-29, and HL-60 cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Cell cultures were treated for 24 h with OGA inhibitor thiamet G or OGT inhibitor 2-acetamido-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-5-thio-α-D-glucopyranose, and global O-GlcNAc levels and expression of galectin genes were determined using an immunodot blot assay and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Two galectin genes, LGALS3 in MCF7 cells and LGALS12 in HL-60 cells, were up-regulated by O-GlcNAc, whereas other cell-specific galectins were unresponsive to changes in O-GlcNAc level. Of interest, basal levels of O-GlcNAc in resting HL-60 and HT-29 cells were significantly higher than those in cells differentiated into neutrophilic or enterocytic lineages, respectively. Conclusion: O-GlcNAc-mediated signaling pathways may be involved in regulating the expression of only a limited number of galectin genes. Additional O-GlcNAc-dependent mechanisms may work at the protein level (galectin secretion and intracellular localization) and warrant further investigation.