Date of Submission


Document Type



Doctor of Education




marginalization of girls, capability approach, servant leadership, transformational leadership, Cawsey, Deszca, and Ingols’ Change Path Model, Kotter’s 8 Stage Model


As pressure grows on developing nations to implement United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), marginalization of girls in education is increasingly becoming a socioeconomic concern to the overall development of these countries. Considering the challenges faced by girls in acquiring education in rural areas of developing nations, this Organizational Improvement Plan (OIP) examines a sensitive yet significant problem of practice (PoP): How can the marginalization of girls be reduced in a provincial primary rural school in a developing country in Asia (Country A)? The OIP examines various perspectives surrounding marginalization of girls, gaining insight into how external and internal forces shape existing practices and culture in the school. Using the Capability Approach (Sen, 1992, 1993, 1995, 1999), which argues for embracing human diversity, the plan calls attention to the plight of girls in rural areas of Country A, analyzing the tensions and apprehensions associated with female education. Perspectives on the problem are understood by examining existing gaps through application of a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis, suggesting a practical solution of a nongovernmental organization (NGO) adopting the school as a two-year pilot project. The strategies provided in the plan guide the change team by using a blended model of Cawsey, Deszca, and Ingols Change Path Model (2015) and Kotter’s Eight Stage Model (1996). The plan recommends using servant and transformational leadership strategies to guide the village community and school through the change process, building trust, and empowering followers, while at all times respecting indigenous values. This OIP will be of interest to the province in implementing similar change initiatives in other schools to reduce marginalization of girls.