Nursing Publications


Relationships among sex, empowerment, workplace bullying and job turnover intention of new graduate nurses

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Journal of Clinical Nursing

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© 2021 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was twofold: examine the relationships among new graduate nurses’ (NGNs) structural empowerment, experience of workplace bullying, and their job turnover intention and assess the relationships between sex, workplace bullying, and job turnover intention. Background: Nursing research has highlighted the issue of workplace bullying and its negative impacts. Despite increased awareness, male nurses and their responses to bullying have not been a significant focus of study. Design: A secondary analysis of data collected from a random sample of 1008 Canadian NGNs from the following: Starting Out: A time-lagged Study of New Graduate Nurses’ Transition to Practice. Methods: All data were analysed using SPSS, and the study model was tested using the SPSS PROCESS macro, specifically Model 4 (for simple mediation). This paper is compliant with the STROBE reporting guideline for cross-sectional studies. Results: Structural empowerment significantly predicted workplace bullying and job turnover intention. Workplace bullying significantly predicted job turnover intention. Structural empowerment mediated job turnover intention through workplace bullying. Male new graduate nurses reported significantly higher workplace bullying than female NGNs yet lower job turnover intention. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate the positive effects of structural empowerment on both decreasing workplace bullying and job turnover intention. Furthermore, findings showed the influence of sex on workplace bullying and job turnover intention. The findings contribute to literature on male NGNs and suggest that they experience significantly higher rates of workplace bullying than their female counterparts. The findings suggest differences exist in the workplace experience for male and female NGNs that future research may help reveal. Relevance to Clinical Practice: The findings suggest structural empowerment may be used to reduce bullying prevalence and reduce job turnover intention consequently. The findings also suggest that some measures are needed to address the higher frequency of bullying experienced by male NGNs.

Citation of this paper:

Favaro, A., Wong, C. and Oudshoorn, A. (2021), Relationships among sex, empowerment, workplace bullying and job turnover intention of new graduate nurses. J Clin Nurs.

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