Probiotics and nutrients for the first 1000 days of life in the developing world
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces
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The purpose of this review is to document the extent of usage of biomaterials in the urogenital tract, and to examine some of the properties involved in microbial interaction and disease. The use of medical devices is on the increase, yet many aspects of their association with microorganisms and tissues are not well understood. This is important, as the major barrier to their use comes from infection, such as those related to catheters, tampons and incontinence pads, which cause morbidity and death. To date, no biomaterial substance has been found which resists microbial adhesion over a reasonable period of time in the clinical setting. While antimicrobial therapy can control infections to some extent, they are invariably ineffective against biofilms, and of no use against toxins. Alternative strategies appear worthy of consideration, for example using autochthonous bacteria to interfere with colonization by pathogens, or mobilizing an effective immune response to control or prevent infection. © 1994.