Probiotic Yogurt Consumption is Associated With an Increase of CD4 Count Among People Living With HIV/AIDS
Under clinical conditions, during antibiotic treatment, micro-organisms often grow at sub-inhibitory concentrations. This may lead to altered adhesive cell surface properties and to a disruption of the indigenous microflora, in addition to the creation of a more pathogenic biofilm. The effects of growing Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and lactobacilli in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin and vancomycin were determined. Growing the cells under antibiotic burden sometimes led to altered cell surface hydrophobicity (by adhesion to hexadecane), changes in the pH-dependence of zeta potentials, and elemental surface compositions or in different SDS-PAGE protein profiles. For several isolates only one of the surface properties was altered by the presence of an antibiotic in the growth medium and no systematic effects were observed for all isolates representing a certain species or even strain. The important conclusion to be drawn from the results of this study is that the effects of growing cells under antibiotic burden on their adhesive cell surface properties can only be established when using a variety of techniques.