Probiotic Lactobacillus dose required to restore and maintain a normal vaginal flora
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces
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Ureteral stents are commonly used in urological practice to drain urine from the kidney, post-operatively. The present study was undertaken to utilize surface science and microbiologicaltechniques for examining three ureteral stent types after indwelling in patients who had been treated with ciprofloxacin. In the nine patients studied, the antibiotic, unlike in a previous study using trimethoprim, prevented bacterial colonization for up to 30 days. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis, it was shown that high levels of encrustations, primarily of calcium carbonate and calcium oxalate, were deposited onto hydrophobic silicone elastomer and Sof-Flex stents. However, a stent with a carbon rich, low surface energy exterior, showed some promise in that there was almost no evidence of encrustation deposition. More extensive trials will confirm whether or not differences between devices are clinically significant. © 1995.