Master of Laws




Elizabeth Steyn


Over the years, climate change and sustainable development have become global concerns that have attracted global attention. This is owing to the fact that human activities calculated to bring about economic growth and sustainable development have wrecked great havoc and disrupted the balance that exists between growth and the environment. It has therefore become crucial for nations to work towards a common goal which is to fight against climate change in order to achieve sustainable development.

This can be achieved by reducing activities that contribute to greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and to climate change. Also, countries will need to adjust their laws to accommodate enhanced policies that promote sustainability in all sectors and to hold people whose activities are likely to degrade the environment accountable for their actions.

This research compares Nigeria and Canada – their sustainable laws and impact assessment processes regarding oil and gas activities with the focus on climate change and sustainable development. It exposes the inadequacies present in the existing environmental impact assessment process of both Canada (a developed country) and Nigeria (a developing country) and demonstrates that Canada has been more compliant to sustainable development goals than Nigeria. It also shows that there is further room for improvement in the environmental impact assessment processes of both jurisdictions, especially pertaining to the issues of climate change, public participation, and the achievement of the sustainable development goals as agreed on by the international community. Hence, the need arises to bridge the gaps that exist between international and domestic environmental standards.

Keywords: Climate Change, Economic Development, Emissions, Environment, Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) and Sustainable Development.