MPA Major Research Papers

Date of Award


Degree Type

Major Research Paper

Degree Name

Master of Public Administration


Political Science


Joseph Lyons

Geographical Areas



This research paper utilizes Kingdon’s (1984) Multiple Streams Framework to systematically analyze influential agenda-setting variables in the policy domain of connected and automated vehicles (CAV) in Ontario, Canada. The paper also leverages the Five Stream Confluence Model, a model which builds on the Multiple Streams Framework and is designed by Howlett et al. (2015) to analyze policy formation. The two foundational research questions that will guide the overall direction of this paper are: (1) What influenced Ontario to be the first province in Canada to legislate connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) in 2015? (2) Have influential agenda-setting variables translated through policy formation to inform the resulting development of CAV policies and non-regulatory guidelines into 2020? This research is longitudinal in scope and focused on a time-period between 2015-2020. Policies included in this analysis include O. Reg 306/15, O. Reg 517/18, and the CAV Readiness Plan (2020). The paper concludes that no singular CAV regulation or policy in Ontario is shaped by every applicable influential agenda-setting variable. The CAV policies analyzed do, however, show glimpses of various agenda-setting influences in their final policy language and throughout policy formation. The paper acknowledges that the Multiple Streams Framework is flexible enough to be applicable to a broad range of policy situations, but also concurs with scholars that the framework should be refined or amended with additional theoretical designs to better encompass the policy process. The Five Stream Confluence Model was an effective analytical tool which showcases that refinements made to the Multiple Streams Framework can lead to an enhanced ability to analyze policymaking and the policy process.