Article Title

The Far North Act (2010) Consultative Process: A New Beginning or the Reinforcement of an Unacceptable Relationship in Northern Ontario, Canada?


In northern Ontario, Canada, there have been two “negotiated” documents that required consultation between First Nations and the federated government of the land: Treaty No. 9 signed in 1905-1906 (Dominion of Canada, with the concurrence of the Province of Ontario) and Ontario’s Far North Act (2010). Treaty No. 9 has defined the relationship between First Nations and Canada; while, the Far North Act will define the relationship with Ontario. This article evaluated whether the Far North Act marked a new beginning or the reinforcement of an unacceptable relationship, using primary and secondary data analyses. Analyses revealed that the passing of the Far North Act was not a new beginning, but the continuation of an unacceptable relationship.


The authors would like to thank the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada for their financial support.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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