Beyond genealogy, the historical and natural landscapes of cemeteries reveal much about the past. Not only do the stones tell us about disease and mortality, but they reflect broader historical and societal trends in Canada. Able to afford more expensive plots on hilltops, the wealthy often chose ostentatious markers which tower over the more modest stones of the middle class located on lower ground. Maple trees represent strength and endurance in the face of grief, but their leaves carved on war graves act as national emblems. Use of Roman and Greek architectural elements on grave markers and mausolea reflect the popularity of neoclassicism in nineteenth century art. The general lack of maiden names on the early graves of women records their subordinate position to their husbands. An epitaph tells us about the deceased’s spiritual or poetic preferences while a masonic symbol indicates the dead’s fraternal ties. Immigrants honour their origins through imagery such as Scottish thistles and Celtic crosses, or by inscribing their birthplace on their gravestones. Inscriptions in mother tongues other than English demonstrate that cultural differences are as important in death as in life. Cemeteries have always been for the living as well as the dead. Today, Woodland Cemetery inspires photographers, provides recreational green space in the city, and preserves local history through walking tours and gravestone restoration. Each year the Master’s in Public History students at Western University collaborate with a community partner to complete a project that presents history to a public audience. In 2017-18, students researched the history of London’s Woodland Cemetery. 140 years after its creation in 1879, it is a fitting time to examine its significance to London’s cultural and natural heritage. xix
Marvin L. Simner
November 11, 1918, marked the end of hostilities in what was initially called the “Great War” and is now known as World War I. The purpose of this publication is to review the events that took place immediately before, during and after the November 11th celebrations in London, Ontario, as recorded largely in the London Free Press and the London Advertiser. The Prelude focuses on how the approaching armistice was viewed, the nature of the events that unfolded before the armistice document was signed, and the “false armistice celebrations” that took place in London on November 7th. In the Aftermath we discuss a number of local issues that arose shortly after November 11th that included among others, how to memorialize those who perished during the war, how to repay the voluminous federal war debt, and how to deal with those who evaded conscription as required by the 1917 Military Service Act. Sandwiched between these two sections is an account of the armistice celebrations that occurred during the week of November 11th.
a) Armistice Delegation. Pg.4
b) The False Armistice. Pg.7
c) Cause and Outcome of the False Armistice. Pg.10
Celebrations during the week of November 11th. Pg.12
a) War Debt and Bond Drives. Pg.13
b) Demobilization. Pg.23
c) Treatment of Defaulters and Deserters. Pg.26
d) Continued Publication of Casualty Lists. Pg.29
e) Caring for the Wounded. Pg.30
f) Memorials. Pg.32
End Notes. Pg.49
How can you counteract an information war?
Hromadske Radio, Public Radio Ukraine, decided to provide accurate and objective information to audiences – free of state and corporate censorship and any kind of manipulation. They broadcasted throughout Ukraine’s Euromaidan, and beyond. This book brings together a series of English language reports on the Ukraine crisis first broadcast on Hromadske Radio between 3 February 2014 and 7 August 2015. Collected and transcribed here, they offer a kaleidoscopic chronicle of events in Ukraine. Bookending the reports, purpose written introduction and conclusion sections contextualize the independent radio project within the larger picture of Ukraine’s media and political developments – both before the Euromaidan and in its dramatic aftermath.
The first comprehensive history of bodybuilding in North America, Esprit de Corps reveals how bodybuilding emerged from weightlifting as a popular sport. Inspired by 19th century strongmen Eugene Sandow and Louis Cyr, the muscles-by-mail icon Charles Atlas, as well as the musclemen movies of Steve Reeves in the mid 20th century, bodybuilding soon eclipsed weightlifting in popularity. Montreal brothers Ben and Joe Weider’s leadership was central to this evolution. From his parent’s modest Montreal home in 1940, teenage weightlifter Joe Weider launched his publishing and business empire, staging physique contests, and eventually founding the world’s premier bodybuilding organization, the International Federation of Bodybuilders (1947). While Ben ran Canadian operations, fending off competitor Adrien Gagnon’s nationalist and racist attacks, Joe expanded the business into the United States encountering rival Bob Hoffman’s angry opposition, anti-Semitism, even allegations that Joe promoted homosexuality. A bitter feud resulted. Joe’s protégé, Arnold Schwarzenegger, revitalized the sport in the 70s and beyond, making it respectable and acceptable. In 1998, The International Olympic Committee recognized the sport officially. The use of performance enhancing drugs and a continuing debate over the ideal body type challenge bodybuilders today.
Marvin L. Simner
Wortley Village, as a proposed heritage conservation district, extends from Beaconsfield Avenue in the north to around Tecumseh in the south and from Wharncliffe Road in the west to Ridout Street in the east (Tauskey, 2012). The heart of the Village, on the other hand, consists of a much narrower region along Wortley Road. This region, which has been recognized for many years, extends roughly from Byron Avenue in the north to Elmwood Avenue in the south, and includes portions of Askin, Craig, and Bruce Streets, along with such neighbouring streets as Cathcart, Cynthia, Edward, Teresa, and Marley Place. Today this narrower region contains not only a number of businesses and professional offices but also an apartment complex, condominium units, and many private residences.
While several excellent sources are available on the early history of this narrower region along with descriptions of the architecture of some of the original buildings (see, for example, Lutman, 1979, Tauskey, 1993), the major purpose of this publication is to outline the evolution of this area from the early 1800s, when it was crown land, to its present state as a vibrant commercial/residential area.
How Middlesex County was Settled with Farmers, Artisans, and Capitalists: An Account of the Canada Land Company in Promoting Emigration from the British Isles in the 1830s through the 1850s
Marvin L. Simner
The need to attract settlers to Southwestern Ontario in the 1830s resulted, at least in part, from a growing fear that if the land bordering Lake Erie remained largely unoccupied it could be absorbed into regions to the south of the Great Lakes and ultimately become part of the United States. Indeed, this fear was not unfounded. As late as 1827 the overall population of Middlesex County, which at the time reached Lake Erie and was somewhat larger in area than today, was only 9,838 (History of the County of Middlesex, 1889). In addition, there was considerable sympathy among certain segments of the population for a republican form of government similar to that which had been established in the United States following the American Revolution.
In what follows, we discuss the purpose of The Canada Land Company, the role played by John Galt in organizing the Company, the nature of the immigrants desired by the Crown, and the methods used by the Company to attract these immigrants. To fully understand the experiences of the immigrants who settled this area we also describe the sea voyage for those who travelled in steerage as well as for those with sufficient funds to travel as cabin passengers. We then conclude with the arrangements made by the Crown and the Company to assist the newly arrived immigrants to find jobs and/or to purchase land.
Marvin L. Simner
Marvin L. Simner
From the mid-1800s through the mid-to-late 1950s the original Jewish neighborhood in Syracuse was located in the 15th Ward, which was bordered by what is now East Water Street, Montgomery Street, East Adams, and University Avenue. Starting around the turn of the last century, the Jewish portion of the Ward was confined to an area of approximately 25 square blocks. Within this area there existed three temples (Adath Jeshurun, Adath Yeshurun, Concord), three synagogues (Ahavath Achim, Beth Israel, Poiley Tzedeck), and one shul (Folk) that served the religious needs of the Jewish community. There were also many Jewish grocery stores, restaurants, bakeries, pharmacies, physicians and dentists that served the more secular needs of the community. Generally speaking, the 15th Ward contained a highly self-sufficient, close-knit, and vibrant Jewish neighborhood. In a way, it was the Syracuse equivalent of New York's Lower East Side, minus the pushcarts.