A spatial analysis of the association between restaurant density and BMI in Canadian adults
URL with Digital Object Identifier
To investigate the association between fast-food restaurant density and adult body mass index (BMI) in Canada.
Individual-level BMI and confounding variables were obtained from the 2007–2008 Canadian Community Health Survey master file. Locations of the fast-food and full-service chain restaurants and other non-chain restaurants were obtained from the 2008 Infogroup Canada business database. Food outlet density (fast-food, full-service and other) per 10,000 population was calculated for each Forward Sortation Area (FSA). Global (Moran's I) and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation of BMI were assessed. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and spatial auto-regressive error (SARE) methods were used to assess the association between local food environment and adult BMI in Canada.
Global and local spatial autocorrelation of BMI were found in our univariate analysis. We found that OLS and SARE estimates were very similar in our multivariate models. An additional fast-food restaurant per 10,000 people at the FSA-level is associated with a 0.022 kg/m2 increase in BMI. On the other hand, other restaurant density is negatively related to BMI.
Fast-food restaurant density is positively associated with BMI in Canada. Results suggest that restricting availability of fast-food in local neighborhoods may play a role in obesity prevention.